nsupdate woes

Over the past three days, I’ve been trying unsuccessfully to set up a fresh name server (using Ansible and Vagrant) to play around with nsupdate and some potential middleware to automate updating DNS zones. Unfortunately, I couldn’t find any good documentation on all the specifics, just a lot of how-tos that somehow all did’t really work for me. I kept getting this error:

client 127.0.0.1#60530: request has invalid signature: TSIG example.com: tsig verify failure (BADKEY)

I will upload my Ansible role for this to Github shortly, but I felt it necessary to spare the next person the pain of getting it all to work.

To use nsupdate, you need to give bind a key, associate that with a zone, and then use that key with nsupdate. Sounds easy enough, right? What all the tutorials fail to mention is that the key files and the name of the key entries in named.conf are all significant.

First, you need to decide what to call your key. It doesn’t matter for which zones you will use it, or from which hosts you will run nsupdate, but you will need to pick a name and stick to it. You can’t change it later, you will need to create a new key if you don’t like the name.

$ dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -n HOST -b 512 mysamplekey

This will create two files. You need both of them, and you can’t change the files’ names.

Next up, you need to add the key to named.conf, and allow requests signed by that key to update a zone (or more):

key "mysamplekey" {
    algorithm hmac-md5;
    secret "base 64 encoded key";
};

zone "example.com" {
    allow-update { key "mysamplekey"; };
    type master;
    file "dynamic/example.com";
};

It is important to remember that “mysamplekey” needs to be the exact same string as from the key generation!

Armed with this configuration, you should be able to update example.com:

$ nsupdate -k Kmysamplekey+123+45678
debug yes
server 127.0.0.1
zone example.com
update add foobar 10 A 192.0.2.1
send

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