Tag Archives: administration

Getting sshd to start as early as possible

In FreeBSD, sshd by default gets started quite late in the boot process, about the same time a console will show the login prompt. There’s quite a few services that can make trouble and hang before that. Annoyingly, you can’t fix a stuck system via ssh, since it’s not started yet. But as it turns out, sshd can be started quite a bit earlier than FreeBSD does by default.

The rcorder keywords in /etc/rc.d/sshd normally look like this:

# PROVIDE: sshd
# REQUIRE: LOGIN cleanvar
# KEYWORD: shutdown

Change the rcorder keywords like so:

# PROVIDE: sshd
# BEFORE: mountcritremote
# KEYWORD: shutdown


Now sshd will be started right after the network has been configured.

Note that starting sshd before certain parts of the system are ready might give you temporary or permanent errors. For example, starting sshd before the user home directories are mounted might cause problems with logins. However, if your machine has all critical filesystems on local disks, making these changes should not pose any problems, and will allow you to log in while the rc scripts are still running, giving you the opportunity to fix any misbehaving services.

Running bash as root’s shell only when it’s not broken

I like bash, mostly for its interactive features over FreeBSD’s standard Bourne-compatible shell, ash.

Setting bash as the default shell for the root user however has a big downside: if you ever break bash or any of the libraries it depends on, you can’t log in as root anymore to fix it. I’ve tried quite a few ways to work around this, and I think I’ve finally figured out a good solution: leave the root shell as /bin/sh, and add this snippet at the end of /root/.profile:

[ -z "$BASH" ] && /usr/local/bin/bash -c 'true' && exec /usr/local/bin/bash

This will start bash, but only if the shell sourcing .profile isn’t bash, and bash can actually successfully be executed.

In FreeBSD 9, ash has apparently grown command name completion. Together with the editing functions (already available in FreeBSD 7), this might allow me to switch to ash as the default shell.